Apart from cryptogenic stroke, there are other conditions associated with PFO (Fig. 1).
Studies show that the prevalence of PFO in people who suffer from migraine with aura is 50% to 75%, more than twice what would be expected in the general population. Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) is caused by disease or lack of activity. DVT is also known as “Economy-Class Syndrome,” as it affects travelers after a long flight. Decompression sickness (DCS) can cause emboli that may reach the brain and cause a stroke. The disorder is most commonly seen in deep-sea divers, astronauts, and high-altitude aviators. In fact, people who suffer from PFO are not allowed to dive.
Rimed’s Digi-Lite TCD
Digi-Lite TCD provides an efficient tool to test PFO due to its high sensitivity and specificity. It’s noninvasive, does not require sedation, and is easily repeatable, making it a safe, comfortable choice for both physicians and patients. To perform the PFO test:
- Inject saline containing air bubbles or echo-contrast enhancing agents.
- Ask the patient to perform the Valsalva maneuver.
- If RLS exists, identify signals of air bubbles in the Middle Cerebral Artery (MCA) on the Doppler Spectrum window.